Macedoniana nacionala movado

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Macedonian national movement is a process of cultural, national, state-political awakening and independence of the Macedonian people . The movement began in 1802 , with the use of the vernacular, rather than Church Slavonic language, the written word, and continued with the manifestation of the Macedonian cultural and historical identity, to requests for restoration of the Ohrid Archbishopric , construction of a separate Macedonian literary language . The process ended in 1944 after the formation of the Macedonian national state, which preceded Macedonian Liberation Revolutionary Struggle [1] [2] .

Revival movement[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

Macedonian national movement begins with the development of Macedonian cities in the first half of the 19th century . With the advancement of trade and crafts to create conditions for the opening of photovoltaic schools.

With the opening of these schools arose the need for books in the vernacular in the Cyrillic alphabet. Hence we have started printing the first books in Macedonian vernacular by Joachim Joachim and Kiril Pejcinovic [3] .

This period begins with the collection and printing of the Macedonian oral folklore, printing a font Church opened Theodosius of Sinai and Master Pebble and Greek alphabet for texts in Macedonian vernacular used Cyriac Drzhilovich Paul Bozhigropski.

Despite this development, along comes to an upsurge in religious architecture and art in fresco painting, icon painting, wood carving and painting), and development has in music and theater, such an attempt made ​​Jordan Hadzi Konstantinov-Genie .

During the 40's and 50's of the 19th century there was a reinforcement of rebirth process and during the 60's and 70's coming to fight against the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the second wave of the Uniate movement (1873-1874). As a consequence of these developments come to a stronger expression of Macedonian independence in 1875, George Pulevski published Trijazichniot Dictionary [4] [5] .

Struggle for restoration of the Ohrid Archbishopric[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

The movement for restoration of the Ohrid Archbishopric , which was abolished in 1767 year started a fight against the Ecumenical Patriarchate . In 50 - ies of the 19th century , nezajaknatite Macedonian municipalities individually began to appear before the Patriarchate demanding the removal of the Greek bishops and replacing them with individuals of Slavic origin [6] , but later request slovensite bishops were replaced with demands of the bishops home, Macedonian origin [6] . In the late 60 - ies of the 19th century fight against the Patriarchate was finishing. In that period the Macedonian church - school communities ednostranichno give up on the power of the Greek bishops. In those areas anywhere in the dominant presence of grkomanite citizens continued to take the fight to the municipalities.

Porte pressure of Russian diplomacy and Graf Ignatiev was ready to solve the church dispute, which was named as the Greek - Bulgarian dispute , without taking into predvit needs and demands of the population of Macedonia autocephalous church, church dispute was resolved only in favor of the Bulgarians .

Hence it was drafted to create garments Bulgarian church. The involvement of the Sublime Porte in the church issue that emerged from within the church dispute.

Thus they were offered two projects: the creation of an autonomous Bulgarian church outside the Patriarchate issue of Macedonian dioceses, whether to remain under the Patriarchate or enter into future autonomous Bulgarian Church. Such positioning of the church issue, for: Macedonians created confusion over the fate of Macedonia, because the church issue somehow was identified with the national question. All urban strata, including the peasantry, could not remain indifferent to such a decision of the church issue, since in case of staying under patriarchal jurisdiction or accession to the Bulgarian church, it would mean the collapse of the struggle of the Macedonian people for decades lead to the emancipation of the church plan [6] .

After the creation of the Bulgarian Exarchate Macedonians gave up the desire for renewal of the Ohrid Archbishopric. The first half of the 70s of the 19th century have expressed strong activity Thessaloniki citizenship.

Activity to rebuild the Archdiocese quickly spread in Macedonia and in makedeonskata colony in Constantinople. In the northern part of Macedonia in particular distinguished the cities of Skopje and Veles clearly stepped propaganda against Greece and the strengthened bugarizam.

But Russian Foreign Minister considered that such a movement for restoration of the Ohrid Archbishopric is not in their interest and because she asked the Sublime Porte to remove Midhat Pasha Thessaloniki, and among other things asked Exarch Antim to warn Bishop Nathaniel Kuchevishki stop agitation Renewal of the Archdiocese.

The struggle for restoration of the Ohrid Archbishopric entered a new stage when the movement is pridluzhil Bishop Neil sources. Then Thessaloniki church-school community in writing addressed to other Macedonian municipalities and the Macedonian colony in Constantinople at this address other Thessaloniki Municipality asked to comment on the issue of renewal of the Ohrid Archbishopric.

They turned to the Church of England because the English Consul Blont Thessaloniki promised support from the British government. The answer was negative. So then 6 municipalities have addressed the German Protestant Church and the American Protestant church, but for political reasons were rejected by both churches. After being rejected by the Protestant churches have decided to turn to the Roman Catholic Church. Six juzhnomakedonski municipal levels accepted union with the Roman Catholic Church, and it contributed to the revival came to the citizenry in other municipalities in Macedonia, some of them gathered signatures to join the union in the form of petitions sent to Catholic missions, but in some municipalities no concrete decisions were taken.

Sublime Porte taking into account their interests is eliminated Nile source from Macedonia and moved to Constantinople, Thessaloniki and was disposed Wali Midhat Pasha who bet on renewal of the Ohrid Archbishopric. These measures have been dealt a blow to the movement for restoration of the Archdiocese, and this contributed to a reluctance to come between the Macedonian citizenship, especially that of Thessaloniki.

In 1890 , the 120 Ohrid citizens sent a request to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of obnava the Ohrid Archbishopric . The request was noted:

Cquote1.png We Slavs from Macedonia, always had its own church, Ohrid Archbishopric ... Today we would like again to restore ... Besides Bulgarians deceived and lied to, they reject our language, they are changing and our sacred traditions, change our whole image. We do not we can not endure an unwanted our children not curse us and the graves of our ancestors. Now we odelivme Bulgarians themselves constitute Slovenian Municipalities, constituting an independent nation. As such we want to have our churches, our schools. We have found and our teachers that we pay and supporting Cquote2.png

Metropolitan Theodosius Gologanov to perceived negative impacts of foreign propaganda in Macedonia and the Macedonian threat to national individuality. Hence he took concrete measures. Namely, first removed the director of the Skopje school Anton successor because he was Bulgarian [8] .

Then took action for removal of all proegzarhiski officials from church - school community, from organizing new elections. During the preparation of the list of teachers for the school year 1891 - 92 year Remove the names of teachers who were born in Bulgaria and replaced them with Macedonians .

In early October 1891 , the first began to publicly criticize Exarchy because reaching for the independence of the Macedonian church communities and its big-Bulgarian policy, proposing rejection of other churches - Constantinople and exarchistic.

Due to this activity he was disposed by the Bulgarian Exarchate .

= Affirmation of the Macedonian vernacular[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

In the struggle for national language in education in the first half of the 19th century. It appears the need to print the Macedonian vernacular. Hence Theodosius Sinai opened its printing house in Thessaloniki and Teacher stones Vatasa. And attempts to open the Slavic department at the Greek printing Cyriac Drzhilovich Thessaloniki.

The need for textbooks in Macedonian vernacular tried to meet Anatolia Zografski , Partenija Zografski and later Dimitar Macedonian and Dimitar Uzunov , Kuzman Shapkarev and George M. Pulevski .

Try to publish the Macedonian Grammar vernacular made Dimitar Miladinov Partenija Zografski Georgi Dink Benjamin Machukovski), but only George Pulevski triumphed Printing at the first part of Slognica rechovska in 1880th

Great-aunt and come to a process to meet the need for literatrura Macedonian vernacular. In the 60s and 70s of the 19th century appear verses of Konstantin Miladinov, Constantine and Andrea Petkovic , Rajko Zinzifov , Prlicev and George Pulevski, and the 90s are emerging literary works of Vojdan Chernodrinski , Mark Cepenkov , Petar Pop Arsov and others.

Folklore, scientific thought and newspapers[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

It all started with the collection and publication of the Macedonian oral folklore (Stephen Verkovich, Miladinov Brothers, George Pulevski Ivan Jastrebov , Kuzman Shapkarev Mark Cepenkov Anton Pop Stoilov , Vasil Ikonomov , Peter Draganov and others.

In parallel appears Macedonian scientific thought: Konstantin Miladinov, George Pulevski George Balaschev , Trajko Kitanchev and others.

Try a custom stamp papers: Macedonian voice , Macedonian sheet , Macedonia , Macedonian voice , messenger Balkan , Balkan and others.

Revolutionary liberation struggle[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

Revolutionary liberation struggle begins before the Berlin Congress in Razlog Uprising (1876), volunteers in the Serbo-Turkish and Russian-Turkish War

After the Berlin Congress , the Macedonian people their dissatisfaction with his decisions expressed through the Kresna Uprising , Macedonian league with the National Assembly of Macedonia and the Provisional Government of Macedonia with its constitution polity in Macedonia .

With the development of the revolutionary movement came to the development of national consciousness through the Vineyard movement , the Company Vardar , the Macedonian club in Belgrade (1902) and the Macedonian scientific and literature in S. Petersburg and its national program which completed the pre-Ilinden period.

Ilinden establish organized and administered by the Macedonian revolutionary organization established drzhavnosnata awareness of people and MNLD with the introduction of the Macedonian language in the first official use (Art. 12 of the Constitution, 1903) and its codification scientific and practical application in the book Misirkov - On Macedonian Matters It is unfinished.

Affirmation of the Macedonian national individuality[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

In Ilinden Uprising Vardar (1905), has proclaimed national scientific priorities of the Macedonian nation, Macedonian nation, language, the Macedonian church and cultural-national autonomy. Thus begins the crucial moment of the Macedonian national movement.

Attempts of camaraderie to open schools in the Macedonian language and the activity of the Macedonian colony in St. Petersburg (1911 - 1917) as a plenipotentiary representative of the Macedonian people in front of Europe , set out the foundations of the epoch final affirmation of cultural and national thought for national and political liberation state constitution of Macedonia.

The creation of a Macedonian state[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

During the National Liberation struggle , both booklets are printed on Racin the people's liberation songs (1943), the second edition of Racin White Dawns (April 1944), a collection of Aco Shopov Poems (1944), and poetry books Venko Markovski : spevot Partisans and following books of poetry Eagles Macedonia , Greece string of fires and Poems (1944).

The first meeting of the Anti monastery St. Prohor Pcinjski on August 2, 1944) constitutes the modern Macedonian state as Democratic Federal Macedonia within the Federation and was inaugurated as the Macedonian literary language begins state life and development of the Macedonian nation culture.