Latinida linguo

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Latinida lingui
Geografiala distributado: Eurazia, Afrika, Amerika e Oceania
Tota parolanti: 1,000 milioni
Subdividuro: Ibero-Latinida linguaro
Ocitano-Latinida linguaro
Galo-Italiana linguaro
Galo-Latinida linguaro
Ocitano-Latinida linguaro
Galo-Latinida linguaro
Reto-Latinida linguaro
Balkano-Latinida linguaro
Sardiniana linguaro
Kodi
ISO 639-2 roa
ISO 639-3 roa
Map-Romance Language World.png
Extenziono dil Latinida lingui.

 Franciana   Hispaniana   Italiana   Portugalana   Rumaniana 

Videz anke: Linguaro
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Latinida linguo esas omna lingui qui originis de Latina linguo, do l'ordinara formo, per opozo kun to klasika e literala, en la olda teritorii de Roman imperio ecepte Grekia qui ne konquestesis da Mohamedani, quale nord-Afrika e Turkia. Ol formacas subgrupo en la Italika linguaro, brancho di l'Indo-Europana linguaro. La diciplino qua studias Latinida lingui esas Latinida filologio. Ti lingui parolesas en teritorio konocata kom Romania, qua nune okupas precipue la sudo di Europa,

Latinida lingui developis de Latina linguo inter la 6ma e la 9ma yarcenti. Nune, li havas plu kam 800 milion nativa parolanti, precipue en Europa ed Amerika ed anke havas granda numero di ne-nativa parolanti e granda uzo kom helpolinguo. Pro la nefacileso por distingar inter linguo e dialekto, l'exakta nombro di Latinida lingui nune parolata ne konocesas, ma la standard akonti nombras 25 (quankam la nombro esas plu granda).

La kin precipua Latinida lingui esas, segun la nombro di parolanti: Hispaniana (387 milioni), Portugalana (204 milioni), Franciana (74 milioni), l'Italiana (59 milioni) e la Rumaniana (24 milioni). Multa di ta lingui havas plu di ne-nativa parolanti, specale la Franciana, tre uzata en Ocidental Afrika.

Artikli remplasas deklini.


Loko: Romania[redaktar | edit source]

Loko di Romania, la teritorii ube Latinida lingui en Europa parolesas.

La Latinida lingui evolucionis ex la Latina linguo. Post la falita de la Roman imperio, la latino divastigita en granda teritorii d'Europa, dividis en multa lingui quale la Hispaniana o l'Italiana.

La teritorio ube ca lingui parolesas nominesas Romania.

Historio[redaktar | edit source]

Externa historio[redaktar | edit source]

On datas proxim l'evoluciono di populala latina vers la Latinida lingui tale:

  1. inter 200 aK e 400 : diferanta formi influeso da lokala ante,
  2. imperio falas,
  3. poka pose 800: lua existi esas agnoskar (Tours-sinodo) e ye 842 unesma texto en protofranca, Strasbourg-juri.

Ek klasika Latina a vulgara Latina[redaktar | edit source]

Tra longa proceso qua komencis longatempe ante nun e, dependanta dil regiono, en diferanta epoki (precipue ek la 4ma yarcento e pose kontinuis til la 10ma yarcento), dil renkontro tra la Latina difundita per la Romani en politikala, kulturala ed etnala nivelo (to esas, la rezulto dil migrado dil koloniisti di lingua Latina o latinigita) kun la diversa lingui uzita per populacioni dil Roman imperio, precipue en ocidentala parto, divelopeskis to quo esos la lingui qui esos denifita kom Latinida.

Komence ol esis kontaminado dil Latino parolita dal Romana funcioneri, dal soldati e dal merkanti qui vivis en certa provinco, per lingui (preske omna Kelti) parlita en la regiono di l’indijena populaciono. Latino parolita per ta Romani, tanta de regionala perspektivo (to esas, dil provinco di origino, kun ne-evitabla diferenci di acento e vorti, derivita dil proceso di latinigado plu o min intensa di ta provinco) kam de kulturala perspektivo (la soldati ne parolis kulta linguo kom la funcionari dil stato). Tala kontaminaciono ne esis decisiva nam l’Imperio restis unita kom politikala uniono pro la granda kulturala influo pro la granda cultura influo: la provo esas la transvivo di poka Keltida paroli en la Latinida lingui.


La genezo-proceso di la nova lingui komencis acelerar forte en omna kazi kun la falo dil Imperio e la masiva enmigro di populi qui parolis Germana lingui en kurta periodo di tempo. Pos diversa invadi en multa regioni dil anciena imperio, l'existanta equilibro rasala e linguala modifikesis, pro l'anciena populi qui parolis Latina ekmigris vers altra regioni, dum ke la regiono koloniigesis da altra populi, exemple en Britannia, ube la habitanti (militisti, oficisti) qui parolis Latina abandonis la regiono dum la 5ma yarcento por kombatar invadi en altra regioni dil imperio, quale Gallia ed Italia.


Ek De Vulgari Eloquentia til hodie[redaktar | edit source]

L'unesma teorika dokumento dedicita al Latinida lingui, skribita en Latino, esas "De Vulgari Eloquentia" (l'eloquenteso dil vulgaro), da Dante (13ma yarcento), ube aperas la diferenceso en lingua d' oïl e lingua d' oc ed anke linguo dil si (Italo-Latinida) referencanta al formo dil parolo 'yes' en plura Latinida lingui.

Al di là di queste date, che in ogni caso attestano le date a partire dalle quali è certa l'affermazione di diversi volgari come lingue, va sottolineata l'espansione straordinaria che diverse di esse hanno avuto nel mondo a seguito delle vicende coloniali.

La maxim parolata Latinida linguo hodie esas la Hispaniana, sequita dil Franciana e la Portugalana e pose l'Italiana e la Rumaniana.

La Latina havis multa influita l'Angliana, di qua vortaro esas granda parto (circum 60%) di Latina origino ed anke kontribuis al naskado di mult auxiliara lingui kom Interlingua.

Interna historio[redaktar | edit source]

Fonetikala chanji[redaktar | edit source]

Generale[redaktar | edit source]

En antiqua Roma ol havas diglosio: Latina di literala texti o sermo urbanus trovis stagnata per gramatiko. Do, omnadia linguo ne esis klasika Latina ma diferanta forma quankam proxima, en divelopada proceso plu libera, sermo plebeius. Ica linguo esis omnadiala por la populo, la komercisti e la soldati e oni povas identifigar lo kam vulgara latino.

Inter la texti qui censuris le formi judikita kom dekadanta ed eroroza, on mustas remarkar l'"Appendiz Probi", kompilado di frequenta "erori" kompilita da Probus qua datas dil 3ma yarcento. Ta formi, e no lia equivalanta en Klasika Latina, qua trovas e l'origino dil paroli uzati en la Latinida lingui. Hike ni skribas kelka exempli da Probus (segun la modelo A ne B, "[dicez] A, ne B"), klasifikata segun la tipo di finetikla evoluado ed akompanita da komentari qui permesas signalar precipa diferenci inter Klasikala e Vulgara Latina. Ol nes esas posibla esar exhaustanta en ta materio ed inkluzar omna diferenci inter amba Latini, ma l'Appendix Probi povas konstitucar introduko pri la temo:

1. calida non calda, masculus non masclus, tabula non tabla, oculus non oclus, etc.
Ta exempli mostras ke postonikala vokali o pretonikala tornis muta. Fakte, Latina paroli achentas calida, masculus, tabula ed oculus, e sequanta vokalo esis breva. Ta mutado provas anke ke tonal acento di Klasikala Latina tornis en intenses acento en Vulgara Latina (nam tonikal acento ne havus tenita influo sur netonika vokali di l'entorno).
2. vínea non vinia, solea non solia, lancea non lancia, etc.
On vidas en ica frazo ke en Vulgara Latina di /e/ breva ante voaklo tornas en semikonsonanto /j/ (inicialo di "yod"); fenomeno nomizita "konsonantado" e konsistas, pose konsonanto, en la palatizado; ta konsonanti palatalizata (qui povas venar ek altra fonti), esas grava en evoluo di Latina lingui pro deficito ke la Latina havis di palatala soni, desequilibro qua al fino originis transformado di granda parto dil primitiva konsonati dil Latino, per ta elemento palatala nomesita "yod". Ta transformado explikas pro quo obtenas, exemple, vinya en la Kataluniana ("viteyo") (kon /nj/, skribita en Latinida lingui kun nesama grafii: la digrafo ny en la Kataluniana, gn en la Franciana ed Italiana, ñ en la Hispaniana ed en la Galisiana, nh en la Portugala ed en l'Ocitaniana e.c.).
3. auris non oricla.
Probus observas en ica exemplo plura fenomeni: unesme, monoftongado o rekto di anciena diftongi: /au/ monoftongas en /o/, i en Vulgara Latina /ae/ facas ol en aperta /e/, kom /oe/ divenas fermita /e/. Pose, uzado di diminutiva sufixo -culus unita ad auris (orelo) donacas auricula, (mikra orelo). Fakte, l'okupado di diminutivi en Vulgara Latina esas frequanta.
4. auctor non autor.
Destakas simplifikado o redukto di konsonantala grupi; tale /kt/ divenas /t/, e donacas autor en la Hispaniana ed en la Kataluniana, ed auteur en la Franciana; pro sama kauzo /pt/ /t/ (septem, scriptum, ruptum), qua evolucionis en set, escrit ed la Hispaniana roto. En la Rumaniana /kt/ divenas /pt/ e /pt/ konservesas.
5. rivus non rios, sibilus non sifilus.
La sono /w/ dil Latina, skribita per letro u (o v en moderna edicioni) evolucionis di nesama formi; vice surdinta til disaparo inter vokali (ri(v)us, qua donacas riu en la Kataluniana, pa(v)or qua donacas peur en la Franciana o paura en l'Italiana), o en espirant bilabial sonora després reforçada en /v/ (en majoritato di Latinida lingui); /p/ e /b/ en intervokalika posiciono evolucionis same, qua explikas ke sibilus donacis sifilus, savanta ke /f/ esas surda varianto di /v/; tale explikas siffler en la Franciana (ek sibilare, qua tornas sifilare e pose siflare) o la Franciana savoir (ek sapere, pose sabere, savere; la Kataluniana saber montras, per lua ortografia, qua restisen meza stato, e.c.).
6. pridem non pride.
Ica lasta exemplo (la listo ne esas exhaustiva) montras ke /m/ al fino di parolo ne prononcis (quo ja okazis en Klasika Latina: Latina verso montras to). Ta silencado esas, inter altri, l'origino dil disaparo dil flexioni; Latinida lingui ne uzas, fakte, ja latina deklinadi ed uzas preposizioni qua naskis kom auxiliara sistemo e gradope remplasis flexiono.

Ica listo ne esas exhaustiva ed esus necesara abordar la questiono dil pan-Latinida diftongado (qua konocas omna Latinida lingui) ed signalar qua numero di vokalis naskis kam konsequo di duesma diftongadi.


Konsonanti[redaktar | edit source]

Signifikanta sono chanji afektis la konsonanti di Latinida lingui.

Lenition[redaktar | edit source]
Stressed vowels[redaktar | edit source]

Morfo-sintaxala chanji[redaktar | edit source]

Case system[redaktar | edit source]

La maxim signifianta chanji inter la Klasikala Latina e la Pra-Latinida (e do di omna Latinida lingui) rilatas al redukto e perdo dil Latinia kazala sistemo, e la korespondanta sintaktikala chanji qua esis prenita.


La kazala sistemo esis drastically reduktita ek la sis-kazala sistemo dil Latino. Quankam quar kazi povas kontrustesar por Pra-Latinida nomi (nominativo, akuzativo, genitivo e dativo kombinita e vokativo), la vokativo esas marginala e prizentas en la Rumaniana (ube ol esus kompleta novigo), e por la restita kazi, ne plus di du esa prizenta en nula linguo.


Ula libereso, quamkan, permesesas en la lokado di adjektivi relative a lia head noun. Pluse, ula lingui (exemple Hispaniana o Rumaniana) havas "akuzativa prepoziciono" (Rumaniana pe, Hispaniana "personal a") apud clitic doubling, quo permesas ula libereso en ordinado di arguments of a verb.

Latinida lingui developis gramatikal artikkli ube Latino ne havis. Articles are often introduced around the time a robust case system falls apart in order to disambiguate the remaining case markers (which are usually too ambiguous by themselves) and to serve as parsing clues that signal the presence of a noun (a function formerly served by the case endings themselves).


Altra chanji[redaktar | edit source]

  • Loss of phonemic vowel length, and change into a free-stressed language. Classical Latin had an automatically determined stress on the second or third syllable from the end, conditioned by vowel length; once vowel length was neutralized, stress was no longer predictable so long as it remained where it was (which it mostly did).
  • Development of a series of palatal consonants as a result of palatalization.
  • Loss of most traces of the neuter gender.
  • Development of a series of analytic perfect tenses, comparable to English "I have done, I had done, I will have done".
  • Loss of the Latin synthetic passive voice, replaced by an analytic construction comparable to English "it is/was done".
  • Loss of deponent verbs, replaced by active-voice verbs.
  • Replacement of the Latin future tense with a new tense formed (usually) by a periphrasis of infinitive + present tense of habēre "have", which usually contracts into a new synthetic tense. A corresponding conditional tense is formed in the same way but using one of the past-tense forms of habēre.
  • Numerous lexical changes. A number of words were borrowed from the Germanic languages and Celtic languages. Many basic nouns and verbs, especially those that were short and/or had irregular morphology, were replaced by longer derived forms with regular morphology. Throughout the medieval period, words were borrowed from Classical Latin in their original form (learned words) or in something approaching the original form (semi-learned words), often replacing the popular forms of the same words.

Linguistikala traiti[redaktar | edit source]

Basika traiti[redaktar | edit source]

Latinida lingui havas numero di kompartita traiti inter omna lingui:

  • Latinida lingui esas modereme inflektita, c.e. ol existas modera komplexa sistemo di afixi (precipue sufixi) qui atachesas a paroli por expresar gramatikala informo kom numero, genero, persono, tempo, e.c. Verbi havas plu da inflexo kam nomi. The amount of synthesis is significantly more than English, but less than Classical Latin and much less than the oldest Indo-European languages (e.g. Ancient Greek, Sanskrit). Inflection is fusional, with a single morpheme representing multiple features (as contrasted with agglutinative languages such as Turkish or Japanese). Exemple Portugalana amei "Me amis" kompozesis di am- "amo" and the fusional morpheme -ei "first person, singular, preterite tense, indicative".
  • Latinida lingui havas a pasable strikta subjekto-verbo-objekto parolo-ordino, kun predonimanta uzo di kapo-unesma konstrukti. Adjektivi, genitivi e relativa klauzi omna sequas olia nukleo, quankam (ecepte la Rumaniana) determiners uzuale precedas.
  • In general, nouns, adjectives and determiners inflect only according to grammatical gender (masculine or feminine) and grammatical number (singular or plural). Grammatical case is marked only on pronouns, as in English; case marking, as in English, is of the nominative-accusative type (rather than e.g. the ergative-absolutive marking of Basque or the split ergativity of Hindi). A significant exception, however, is Rumaniana, with two-case marking (nominative/accusative vs. genitive/dative) on nominal elements.
  • Verbs are inflected according to a complex morphology that marks person, number (singular or plural), tense, mood (indicative, subjunctive, imperative), and sometimes aspect and/or gender. Grammatical voice (active, passive, middle/reflexive) and some grammatical aspects (in particular, the perfect aspect) are expressed using periphrastic constructions.
  • Most Romance languages are null subject languages (but modern French is not, as a result of the phonetic decay of verb endings).
  • All Romance languages have two articles (definite and indefinite), and many have in addition a partitive article (expressing the concept of "some"). In some languages (notably, French), the use of an article with a noun is nearly obligatory; it serves to express grammatical number (no longer marked on most nouns) and to cope with the extreme homophony of French vocabulary as a result of extensive sound reductions.
  • The phonology of most Romance languages is of moderate size with few unusual phonemes. Phonemic vowel length is uncommon. Some languages have developed nasal vowels and/or front rounded vowels.
  • Word accent is of the stress (dynamic) type, rather than making use of pitch (as in Ancient Greek and some modern Slavic languages), and is free, occurring more or less unpredictably on one of the last three syllables. In practice, the stress is largely predictable, due to the many morphological and phonological stress-related patterns.

Fonologio[redaktar | edit source]

Konsonanti[redaktar | edit source]

La majoritato dil Latinida lingui havas sama konjunto di konsonanti. La sequanta esas la kombinata tablo dil konsonanti dil precipua Latinida lingui (Franciana, Hispaniana, Italiana, Portugalana e Rumaniana).

Romance consonants
Bilabialo Labial-
dentalo
Inter-
dentalo
Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatalo Velar/
Uvular
Glotalo
Senvoca Voca Senvoca Voca Senvoca Voca Senvoca Voca Senvoca Voca Senvoca Voca Senvoca Voca Senvoca
Nazalo m}} n}} ɲ}}
Klusilo p}} b}} t}} d}} k}} ɡ}}
Afrikato (ts}}) ((dz}})) tʃ}} (dʒ}})
Frikativo f}} v}} ((θ}})) s}} z}} ʃ}} ʒ}} ((x}})) ((h}}))
Rhotic ɾ,r (ʁ}})
Lateralo | (ʎ}})
Aproximanto j}} w}}
          =============== TRADUZIR ATÉ AQUI   =====================       -->

Omna Latinida lingui havas muta /h/.

Nomala morfologio[redaktar | edit source]

Substantivi, adjektivi e pronomi povas havar gramatikala genro, numero e kazo. Adjektivi e pronomi mustas akordar pri omna traiti kun la nomo a qua esas ligita.

Numero[redaktar | edit source]

Latinida lingui heredis dil Latino du gramatikala numeri, singularo e pluralo; ne existas traco dil duala numero.

Genro[redaktar | edit source]

Maxim Latinia lingui havas du genri: maskulala e feminalo. La genro di animata nomi esas generale naturala (c.e. nomi qui referas a homi esas generale maskulala ed inverse), ma por ne animata nomi esas arbitrala.

Quankam la Latina havis tri genri (neutra), ol esas mikra traco di to en la maxim lingui. La maxim granda ecepto esas la Rumaniana, ube existas produktiva klaso di "neutra" nomi, qua inkluzas la decendanti du multa Latina nuetra nomi e qua konduktesas kom maskulala en singularo e kom feminala en pluraro, amba en la finali akordata kun adjektivi e pronomi (exemple un deget "un fingro" vs. două degete "du fingri", komparar kun la Latina digitum, pl. digita).

Such nouns arose because of the identity of the Latin neuter singular -um with the masculine singular, and the identity of the Latin neuter plural -a with the feminine singular. A similar class exists in Italian, although it is no longer productive (e.g. il dito "the finger" vs. le dita "the fingers", l'uovo "the egg" vs. le uova "the eggs"). (A few isolated nouns in Latin had different genders in the singular and plural, but this was an unrelated phenomenon; this is similarly the case with a few French nouns, such as amour, délice, orgue.)

Hispaniana also has vestiges of the neuter in two demonstrative adjectives: eso, aquello (both meaning "that [one]"), the pronoun ello (meaning "it") and the article lo (used to intensify adjectives).

Case[redaktar | edit source]

Latin had an extensive case system, where all nouns were declined in six cases (nominative, vocative, accusative, dative, genitive, and ablative) and two numbers. Adjectives were additionally declined in three genders, leading to potentially 36 (6 * 2 * 3) different endings per adjective. In practice, some category combinations had identical endings to other combinations, but a basic adjective like bonus "good" still had 14 distinct endings.

Hispaniana pronoun inflections
Case "I" "you"
(familiar sg.)
"oneself" "he" "she" "we"
Nominativo yo él ella nosotros
Akuzativo me te se lo la nos
Dativo me te se le le nos
Genitivo mío tuyo suyo suyo; de él suyo; de ella nuestro
Posesivo mi tu su su su nuestro
Disjuntivo ti él ella nosotros
Kun con conmigo contigo consigo con él con élla con nosotros
(archaic connosco)

In all Romance languages, this system was drastically reduced. In most modern Romance languages, in fact, case is no longer marked at all on nouns, adjectives and determiners, and most forms are derived from the Latin accusative case. Much like English, however, case has survived somewhat better on pronouns.

Most pronouns have distinct nominative, accusative, genitive and possessive forms (cf. English "I, me, mine, my"). Multa altra anke havas separita dativa formo, a disjunctive form used after prepositions, and (in some languages) a special form used with the preposition con "with" (a conservative feature inherited from Latin forms such as mēcum, tēcum, nobiscum).


Hispaniana inflectional classes
"boy" "girl" "man" "woman"
Singular chico chica hombre mujer
Plural chicos chicas hombres mujeres

The system of inflectional classes is also drastically reduced. The basic system is most clearly indicated in Hispaniana, where there are only three classes, corresponding to the first, second and third declensions in Latin: plural in -as (feminine), plural in -os (masculine), plural in -es (either masculine or feminine). The singular endings exactly track the plural, except the singular -e is dropped after certain consonants.

The same system underlines many other modern Romance languages, such as Portuguese, French and Catalan. In these languages, however, further sound changes have resulted in various irregularities. In Portuguese, Exemple, loss of /l/ and /n/ between vowels (with nasalization in the latter case) produces various irregular plurals (nação - nações "nation(s)"; hotel - hotéis "hotel(s)").

In French and Catalan, loss of /o/ and /e/ in most unstressed final syllables has caused the -os and -es classes to merge. In French, merger of remaining /e/ with final /a/ into [ə]}}, and its subsequent loss, has completely obscured the original Romance system, and loss of final /s/ has caused most nouns to have identical pronunciation in singular and plural, although they are still marked differently in spelling (e.g. femme - femmes "woman - women", both pronounced /fam).


Romanian noun inflections
Definiteness Case "boy" "girl"
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Indefinite Nominative
Accusative
băiat băieți fată fete
Genitive
Dative
băiat băieți fete fete
Vocative băiatule, băiete băietilor fato (fată) fetelor
Definite Nominative
Accusative
băiatul băieții fata fetele
Genitive
Dative
băiatului băieților fetei fetelor

Noun inflection has survived in Romanian somewhat better than elsewhere.[1]Shablono:Rp Determiners are still marked for two cases (nominative/accusative and genitive/dative) in both singular and plural, and feminine singular nouns have separate endings for the two cases. In addition, there is a separate vocative case, and the combination of noun with a following clitic definite article produces a separate set of "definite" inflections for nouns.

The inflectional classes of Latin have also survived more in Romanian than elsewhere, e.g. om - oameni "man - men" (Latin homo - homines); corp - corpuri "body - bodies" (Latin corpus - corpora). (Many other exceptional forms, however, are due to later sound changes or analogy, e.g. casă - case "house(s)" vs. lună - luni "moon(s)"; frate - fraţi "brother(s)" vs. carte - cărţi "book(s)" vs. vale - văi "valley(s)".)

In Italian, the situation is somewhere in between Hispaniana and Romanian. There are no case endings and relatively few classes, as in Hispaniana, but noun endings are generally formed with vowels instead of /s/, as in Romanian: amico - amici "friend(s) (masc.)", amica - amiche "friend(s) (fem.)"; cane - cani "dog(s)". The masculine plural amici is thought to reflect the Latin nominative plural rather than accusative plural -ōs (Hispaniana -os); however, the other plurals are thought to stem from special developments of Latin -ās and -ēs.


Evolution of case in various Romance languages (Latin bonus "good")
Case Latin Hispaniana Old French[2]Shablono:Rp Old Sursilvan[1]Shablono:Rp Romanian[1]Shablono:Rp
Masculine singular Nominative bonus bueno buens buns bun
Vocative bone
Accusative bonum buen biVn
Genitive bonī
Dative bonō
Ablative bonō
Masculine plural Nominative bonī buenos buen biVni buni
Vocative bonī
Accusative bonōs buens buns
Genitive bonōrum
Dative bonīs
Ablative bonīs
Feminine singular Nominative bona buena buene buna bună
Vocative bona
Accusative bonam
Genitive bonae bune
Dative bonae
Ablative bonā
Feminine plural Nominative bonae buenas buenes bunas bune
Vocative bonae
Accusative bonās
Genitive bonārum
Dative bonīs
Ablative bonīs

A different type of noun inflection survived into the medieval period in a number of western Romance languages (Old French, Old Occitan, and the older forms of a number of Rhaeto-Romance languages). This inflection distinguished nominative from oblique, grouping the accusative case with the oblique, rather than with the nominative as in Romanian.

The oblique case in these languages generally inherits from the Latin accusative; as a result, masculine nouns have distinct endings in the two cases while most feminine nouns don't.

A number of different inflectional classes are still represented at this stage. Exemple, the difference in the nominative case between masculine li voisins "the neighbor" and li pere "the father", and feminine la riens "the thing" vs. la fame "the woman", faithfully reflects the corresponding Latin inflectional differences (vicīnus vs. pater, fēmina vs. rēs).

A number of synchronically quite irregular differences between nominative and oblique reflect direct inheritances of Latin third-declension nouns with two different stems (one for the nominative singular, one for all other forms), most with of which had a stress shift between nominative and the other forms: li ber - le baron "baron" (ba - banem); la suer - la seror "sister" (soror - sorem); li prestre - le prevoire "priest" (presbyter - presbyterem); li sire - le seigneur "lord" (senior - seniōrem); li enfes - l'enfant "child" (infāns - infantem).[3]Shablono:Rp

A few of these multi-stem nouns derive from Latin forms without stress shift, e.g. li om - le ome "man" (ho - hominem). All of these multi-stem nouns refer to people; other nouns with stress shift in Latin (e.g. amor - arem "love") have not survived. Interestingly, some of the same nouns with multiple stems in Old French and/or Old Occitan have come down in Italian in the nominative rather than the accusative (e.g. uomo "man" < ho, moglie "wife" < mulier), suggesting that a similar system existed in pre-literary Italian.

The modern situation in Sursilvan (one of the Rhaeto-Romance languages) is unique in that the original nominative/oblique distinction has been reinterpreted as a predicative/attributive distinction:[1]Shablono:Rp

  • il hotel ej vɛɲiws natsionalizaws "the hotel has been nationalized"
  • il hotel natsionalizaw "the nationalized hotel"

Verbala morfologio[redaktar | edit source]

Exquisite-kfind.png Videz anke: Latinida verbi.
Origino di Latinida tempi
Latino Portugalano Hispaniano Kataluaniano Ocitaniano Franciano Reto-Latinido Italiano Rumaniano Sardiniano
Present indicative Present indicative
Present subjunctive Present indicative
Imperfect indicative Imperfect indicative
Imperfect subjunctive Personal infinitive Imperfect subjunctive /
Personal infinitive
Future indicative eres ("you are") future of "to be"
in Old French
Perfect indicative Preterite Simple preterite (literary except in Valencian) Preterite Remote past (literary) Preterite (Tuscan Standard Italian)[4];
Literary Remote Past
(Regional Standard Italian in North); Preterite/Perfect
(Regional Standard Italian in South)
Simple past (literary except in the Oltenian dialect) In Old Sardinian;
only traces in modern lang
Perfect subjunctive
Pluperfect indicative Literary pluperfect Imperfect subjunctive (-ra form) Second conditional
in Old Occitan
Second preterite
in very early Old French
(Sequence of Saint Eulalia)
Pluperfect subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Pluperfect indicative
Future perfect Future subjunctive
(very much alive)
Future subjunctive
(moribund)
possible traces of
future subjunctive
in Old Occitan
possible traces of
future subjunctive
in Old Italian
New future infinitive-habeo voleo infinitive voleo infinitive
New conditional infinitive-habebam infinitive-habuisset infinitive-habuit habeo infinitive
(split apart from
infinitive-habeo
in eighteenth-century Romanian)
Preterite vs. present perfect
(in speech)
preterite only
(present perfect exists,
but has different meaning)
both both (but usually an analytic preterite
vado infinitive is used)
 ? present perfect only present perfect only both (Tuscan Standard Italian)[5];
present perfect only
(Regional Standard Italian in North);
preference for preterite
(Regional Standard Italian in South)
present perfect only present perfect only

Verbs have many conjugations, including in most languages:

  • A present tense, a preterite, an imperfect, a pluperfect, a future tense and a future perfect in the indicative mood, for statements of fact.
  • Present and preterite subjunctive tenses, for hypothetical or uncertain conditions. Several languages (Exemple, Italian, Portuguese and Hispaniana) have also imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives, although it is not unusual to have just one subjunctive equivalent for preterit and imperfect (e.g. no unique subjunctive equivalent in Italian of the so-called passato remoto). Portuguese, and until recently Hispaniana, also have future and future perfect subjunctives, which have no equivalent in Latin.
  • An imperative mood, for direct commands.
  • Three non-finite forms: infinitive, gerund, and past participle.
  • Distinct active and passive voices, as well as an impersonal passive voice.
  • Note that, although these categories are largely inherited from Classical Latin, many of the forms are either newly constructed or inherited from different categories (e.g. the Romance imperfect subjunctive most commonly derives from the Latin pluperfect subjunctive, while the Romance pluperfect subjunctive derives from a new present perfect tense with the auxiliary verb placed in the imperfect subjunctive).

Several tenses and aspects, especially of the indicative mood, have been preserved with little change in most languages, as shown in the following table for the Latin verb dīcere (to say), and its descendants.

Infinitive Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Present Preterite Imperfect Present Present
Latina dīcere dīcit dīxit dicēbat dīcat/dīcet dīc
Aragonana dicir diz dició deciba/diciba diga diz
Asturiana dicir diz dixo dicía diga di
Kataluniana dir diu/dit digué/va dir/dit deia digui/diga digues
Korsikana dice/dici disse/dissi dicia dica/dichi
Emilian dîr dîs l'à détt / dgé dgeva dégga
Franco-Provençal dire di djéve dijisse/dzéze dète
Franciana dire dit dit disait dise dis
Galisiana dicir di dixo dicía diga di
Italiana dicere/dire dice disse diceva dica
Judaeo-Hispaniana (Ladino) dezir dize disho dezía diga dezí
Leonana dicire diz dixu dicía diga di
Milanese dis ha dit diseva diga
Mirandolese dir diś à dit dgiva diga
Napolitana dicere dice dicette diceva diche dije
Ocitaniana díser/dire ditz diguèt disiá diga diga
Picard dire dit - disoait diche -
Piedmontese dis dìsser1, l'ha dit disìa disa dis
Portugalana dizer diz disse dizia diga diz2
Rumaniana a zice, zicere3 zice zise zicea zică zi
Romansh dir di ha ditg discheva4 dia di
Sardiniana narrer5 narat[6] at naradu[7] naraiat[8] narat[6] nara[9]
Siciliana dìciri dici dissi dicìa dica6 dici
Hispaniana decir dice dijo decía diga di
Venetian dir dise - disea diga dì/disi
Walloon dire dit a dit dijheut dixhe di
Basic meaning to say he says he said he was saying he says say [thou]
1Until the eighteenth century.
2With the disused variant dize.
3long infinitive
4In modern times, scheva.
5Pronounce: nàrrere
6Sicilian now uses imperfect subjunctive dicissi in place of present subjunctive.

The main tense and mood distinctions that were made in classical Latin are generally still present in the modern Romance languages, though many are now expressed through compound rather than simple verbs. The passive voice, which was mostly synthetic in classical Latin, has been completely replaced with compound forms.

  • Owing to sound changes which made it homophonous with the preterite, the Latin future indicative tense was dropped, and replaced with a periphrasis of the form infinitive + present tense of habēre (to have). Eventually, this structure was reanalysed as a new future tense.
  • In a similar process, an entirely new conditional form was created.
  • While the synthetic passive voice of classical Latin was abandoned in favour of periphrastic constructions, most of the active voice remained in use. However, several tenses have changed meaning, especially subjunctives. Exemple:
    • The Latin pluperfect indicative became a conditional in Sicilian, and an imperfect subjunctive in Hispaniana.
    • The Latin pluperfect subjunctive developed into an imperfect subjunctive in all languages except Romansh, where it became a conditional, and Romanian, where it became a pluperfect indicative.
    • The Latin preterite subjunctive, together with the future perfect indicative, became a future subjunctive in Old Hispaniana, Portuguese, and Galician.
    • The Latin imperfect subjunctive became a personal infinitive in Portuguese and Galician.
  • Many Romance languages have two verbs "to be". One is derived from Vulgar Latin *essere < Latin esse "to be" with an admixture of forms derived from sedēre "to sit", and is used mostly for essential attributes; the other is derived from stāre "to stand", and mostly used for temporary states. This development is most notable in Hispaniana, Portuguese and Catalan. In French, Italian and Romanian, the derivative of stāre largely preserved an earlier meaning of "to stand/to stay", although in modern Italian, stare is used in a few constructions where English would use "to be", as in sto bene "I am well". In Old French, the derivatives of *essere and stāre were estre and ester, respectively. In modern French, estre persists as être "to be" while ester has been lost as a separate verb; but the former imperfect of ester is used as the modern imperfect of être (e.g. il était "he was"), replacing the irregular forms derived from Latin (e.g. ere(t), iere(t) < erat). In Italian, the two verbs share the same past participle, stato. sedēre persists most notably in the future of *essere (e.g. Hispaniana/Portuguese/French/etc. ser-, Italian sar-), although in Old French the future is a direct derivation from Latin, e.g. (i)ert "he will be" < erit. See Romance copula for further information.

For a more detailed illustration of how the verbs have changed with respect to classical Latin, see Romance verbs.

  • During the Renaissance, Italian, Portuguese, Hispaniana and a few other Romance languages developed a progressive aspect which did not exist in Latin. In French, progressive constructions remain very limited, the imperfect generally being preferred, as in Latin.
  • Many Romance languages now have a verbal construction analogous to the present perfect of English. In some, it has taken the place of the old preterite (at least in the vernacular); in others, the two coexist with somewhat different meanings (cf. English I did vs. I have done). A few examples:
    • preterite only: Galician, Asturian, Sicilian, Leonese, Portuguese, some dialects of Hispaniana;
    • preterite and present perfect: Catalan, Occitan, standard Hispaniana;
    • present perfect predominant, preterite now literary: French, Romanian, several dialects of Italian and Hispaniana.
    • present perfect only: Romansh

Note that in Catalan, the synthetic preterite is predominantly a literary tense, except in Valencian; but an analytic preterite (formed using an auxiliary vadō, which in other languages signals the future) persists in speech, with the same meaning. In Portuguese, a morphological present perfect does exist but has a different meaning (closer to "I have been doing"), and is rare in practice.

The following are common features of the Romance languages (inherited from Vulgar Latin) that are different from Classical Latin:

  • Adjectives generally follow the noun they modify.
  • The normal clause structure is SVO, rather than SOV, and is much less flexible than in Latin.
  • Many Latin constructions involving nominalized verbal forms (e.g. the use of accusative plus infinitive in indirect discourse and the use of the ablative absolute) were dropped in favor of constructions with subordinate clause. Eceptaji povas trovesar en Italiana: exemple Latina tempore permittente > Italiana tempo permettendo; L. hoc facto > I. ciò fatto.

Kauzi dil diverseso dil Latinida lingui[redaktar | edit source]

Naturala fonetikala evoluciono dil lingui, a qua la Latina nature ne likis, explikas en lua majoritato la grava diferenci inter kelka Latinida lingui, A ta proceso anke adjuntas lexikala diverseso di quo nominesas Vulgara Latina: la grandeso di Roman imperio e absenso di literaturala e gramatikala normo rezultis en lokala linguo ne fixita. Tale singl areo di l'Impero uzis partikulara Vulgara Latino kom ja ante videsis, linguo preferinta dicar "casa" (en la Hispaniana, la Kataluniana, l'Italiana, la Portugalana e la Rumaniana) ed altra linguo preferinta la termo "mansio" (kom la Francia maison). A ta du kauzi adjuntesas presenso di substrakti: lingui parlita komence en un areo e tegita di altra, lasanta kelka traiti en vortaro ed en gramatiko o en pronuncio en la linguo qua arivis. Tale, Galliana substrakto en la Franciana lasis 180 paroli ed esas l'origino dil chanjo ek la Latina /u/ al Francia /y/.

Naturale, l'influo de Galliana ne restriktesis a Franciana, Portugalana o la dialekti de la nordo di Italia, exemple, prenas anke kelka termini. Egale ula ciencisti konsideras ke lingui qui servis di substrakto per ula Ibero-Latinida lingui esis la Baskiana o la Baskiano-Iberiana. La Baskiana eble aportis la chanjo di /f/ a /h/ en komenco di paroli en la Hispaniana e la Gaskoniana (Latine farina donacis harina en la Hispania ed haria en la Gaskoniana) ed paroli kom izquierda en la Hispaniana o esquerra en la Kataluniana (ezker en la Baskiana). Altra subtrakti dil Latina en Katalunia esas la Kelta, di Indo-Europana tipo, ne kom la Baskiana.

Ol anke existis influo di l'Etruriana per l'Italiana dialekto dil Toskanana, kom la prononcado di /k/ kom /h/ o /χ/. On mustas dicar ke teorii di Baskiana ed Etruriana substrakti esas nekredata hodie.

Fine, la superstrakto anke havas grava rolo en diferencado dil Latinida lingui: ol esas la lingui dil pobli qui, instalanta su en la teritorio, ne povis impozar lua linguo ma lasis grava traiti. La Francika superstrakto (to esas, Germana) en Gallia esas grava; la medievala vortaro esas plena, precipue en vorti pri milito ed rurala vivo.

La Franciana e l'Ocitaniana havas multa paroli ek Germana lingui. Anke la Kataluniana e la Hispaniana havas Germana paroli ek la Gotiana en la kazo di ambi, ed anke ek la Franka en la kazo dil Kataluniana.

En la Hispaniana la superstrakto plu grava esas l'Arabiana: ek ta linguo provenas 4000 paroli, inter li toponimi ed kompozata vorti. La maxim grava karakteristiko esas la manteno quasi sistematikala di Arabian artiklo en la parolo, quankam en altra Latinida lingui qui prenis la sama parolo perdis lo. Tale okazas kun la Hispaniana vorto algodón, cotó en la Kataluniana ed coton en l'Ocitaniana, qua provenas el l'Arabiana al quṭun.

Fine, la Rumaniana prenis la vokativo dil Slava lingui, ula vorti ed procesi di palatalizado nesama en altra Latinida lingui.

On povas donacar hike la rezulti di studio da M. Pei ye 1949, quon komparas grado di evoluciono di plura lingui rispekto al matrala linguo; por la maxim grava Latinida lingui, si nun konsideresas tonikala vokali, obtenas, rispekto al Latina, ta koeficenti di evoluciono:

Tale esas posibla vidar kon facileso la grado di variebleso dil konservadurismo dil Latinida lingui. La maxim proxima al Latina (fonetikale e nun konsideranta tonikala vokali) esas la Sardiniana, e la maxim fora esas la Franciana.

Klasifiko[redaktar | edit source]

Ibero-Latinida lingui en Hispania, Francia, Portugal, Andorra e Sardinia.
Distributado dil Ocitano-Latinida lingui.
Lingui di Italia: Galo-Italiana grupo esas verde, Centrala Italo-Latinida esas blue e la Siciliana esas bruna.

Latinida lingui klasifikas en plura grupi, ed singla povas kontenar multa dialekti. On mustar dicar ke elektado di unu di ca dialekto kom oficala linguo oebdias a politikala kauzi. Latinida lingui formacas kontino di numerosa lingui inter qua ulatempe minimi, ma ica listo nun montros la maxim konocata lingui:

Skribo-sistemi[redaktar | edit source]

Exquisite-kfind.png Videz anke: Latin alfabeto.

Latinida lingui por la maxim importanta parto havas retenita la skriburo sistemo di Latino, adaptanta lo a lua evoluciono. Uno eceptajo esis Rumanian ante 19ma yarcento, ube pos la Romana retreto, kompreno esis riintroduktita tra Rumaniana kirila alfabeto, slaviko influo. Kirila alfabeto esis anke uzita por Rumaniana (Moldovana) en Sovietia. La nekristana populi di Hispania anke uzita la skribaji di ta religii (mohameta e juda) por skribar Latinida lingui tale Ladino e Mozarabik en aljamiado.

Gradi di mutuala komprenebleso inter Latinida lingui[redaktar | edit source]

Segun Ethnologue [10]

% Franciana Kataluniana Italiana Portugalana Romancha Rumaniana Hispaniana Sardiniana Ocitaniana
Franciana 85 89 75 78 75 75 80 75
Kataluniana 85 87 85 76 73 85 75 95
Italiana 89 87 73 78 77 82 85 78
Portugalana 75 85 73 74 72 89 78 73
Romancha 78 76 78 74 72 74 74 75
Rumaniana 75 73 77 72 72 71 74 78
Hispaniana 75 85 82 89 74 71 76 74
Sardiniana 80 75 85 78 74 74 76 76
Ocitaniana 75 95 78 73 75 78 74 76

Komparo inter la prencipua Latinida lingui[redaktar | edit source]

Ido Latina Sardiniana Siciliana Italiana Korsikana Kastiliana Portugalana Galisiana Ocitaniana Katalaniana Friulana Franciana Rumaniana
fromajo caseus casu furmanciu formaggio / cacio casgiu / furmagliu queso queijo queixo formatge formatge formadi fromage caş
kantar cantare cantai cantari cantare cantà cantar cantar cantar cantar cantar cjantâ chanter cînta
kapro capra craba crapa capra capra cabra cabra cabra cabra cabra cjavre chèvre capra
klefo clave crai chiavi (ciavi) chiave chjave llave chave chave clau clau clâf clé cheie
eklezio ecclesia crèsia chiesa chiesa chjesa iglesia igreja igrexa glèisa església glesie église bisericǎ
hospitalo hospitalis spidali spidali ospedale ospidale hospital hospital hospital espitau hospital ospedâl hôpital spital
linguo lingua lingua lingua lingua lingua lengua lingua lingua lenga llengua lenghe langue limbǎ
placo platea prazza chiazza piazza piazza plaza praça praza plaça plaça place place piaţǎ
ponto pons ponti ponti ponte ponte puente ponte ponte pònt pont puint pont pod
nokto nocte notti notti notte notte noche noite noite nuèit / nuèch nit gnot nuit noapte

Numeri[redaktar | edit source]

Rikonstruktado di numero ek 1 til 10 por plura Latinida grupi:

GLOSA Ibero-
Latinida
Ocitano-
Latinida
Galo-
Latinida
Galo-
Italiana
Reto-
Latinida
Italo-
Latinida
Balkano-
Latinida
'1' *un/*una *un/*una *ɶ̃~*ɔ̃/*ynə *yŋ/*yna *uŋ/*una *uno/*una *un/*una
'2' *dos/*duas *dos/*duas *do/*due *dui/*due *dui/*duas *due *doi / *dowə
'3' *tres *tres *treis *trei/*trɛ *treis/*trei *tre *trei
'4' *kwatro *kwatre *katre *kwatr(o) *kwater *kwattro *patru
'5' *ʦinko *sink *sẽk *ʦinkwe *ʧiŋk *ʧiŋkwe *ʦinʦe
'6' *seis *sieis *sis *sei *seis *sei *sæse
'7' *sɛte *sɛt *sɛt *sɛt(e) *sɛt *sɛtte *sæpte
'8' *oito *ueit *uit *øt(o)~ɔt(o) *ɔt *otto *optu
'9' *nɔβe *nɔu *nɶf *nɶv *noʊv *nɔve *nowə
'10' *dɛʦ *dɛʦ *dis *dɛʒ(e) *deʃ *dɛʧi *ʣæʦe

Exempli[redaktar | edit source]

Hike on montras exempli di frazo en plura Latinida lingui.

Ido (Elu) sempre klozas la finestro antee dineo.
Latin (Ea) semper antequam cenat fenestram claudit.
Aragonese (Ella) zarra siempre a finestra antes de cenar.
Aromanian (Ea/Nâsa) încljidi/nkidi totna firida ninti di tsinâ.
Asturian (Ella) pieslla siempres la ventana enantes de cenar.
Bergamasque (Lé) la sèra sèmper sö la finèstra prima de senà.
Bolognese (Lî) la sèra sänper la fnèstra prémma ed dsnèr.
Catalan (Ella) sempre tanca la finestra abans de sopar.
Corsican (Ella/Edda) chjode sempre u purtellu nanzu di cenà.
Emilian (Lē) la sèra sèmpar sù la fnèstra prima ad snàr.
Extremadurana linguo (Ella) afecha siempri la ventan antis de cenal.
Franco-Provençal (Le) sarre toltin/tojor la fenétra avan de goutâ/dinar/sopar.
French Elle ferme toujours la fenêtre avant de dîner/souper.
Friulan (Jê) e siere simpri il barcon prin di cenâ.
Galician (Ela) pecha/fecha sempre a fiestra/xanela antes de cear.
Italian (Ella/Lei) chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare.
Judaeo-Hispaniana Eya serra syempre la ventan antes de senar.
Ladin (Ëra) stlüj dagnora la finestra impröma de cenè. (badiot) (Ëila) stluj for l viere dan maië da cëina (gherdëina)
Leonese (Eilla) pecha siempre la ventana primeiru de cenare.
Ligurian (Le) a saera sempre u barcun primma de cenà.
Milanese (Le) la sara semper sü la finestra prima de disnà.
Mirandese (Eilha) cerra siempre la bentana/jinela atrás de jantar.
Mozarabic Ella cloudet sempre la fainestra abante da cenare. (rikonstruktita)
Neapolitan Essa nzerra sempe 'a fenesta primma 'e magnà.
Norman Lli barre tréjous la crouésie devaunt de daîner.
Occitan (Ela) barra sempre/totjorn la fenèstra abans de sopar.
Picard Ale frunme tojours l’ creusèe édvint éd souper.
Piedmontese Chila a sara sèmper la fnestra dnans ëd fé sin-a/dnans ëd siné.
Portuguese Ela fecha sempre a janela antes de jantar/cear.
Rumaniana Ea închide totdeauna fereastra înainte de a cina.
Romansh Ella clauda/serra adina la fanestra avant ch'ella tschainia.
Sardinian Issa serrat semper sa bentana innantis 'e chenare.
Sassarese Edda sarra sempri lu balchoni primma di zinà.
Sicilian Idda chiui sempri la finestra prima di pistiari/manciari.
Hispaniana (Ella) siempre cierra la ventana antes de cenar.
Umbrian Essa chjude sempre la finestra prima de cena'.
Venetian Eła ła sara/sera sempre ła fenestra vanti de xenàr/disnar.
Walloon Ele sere todi li finiesse divant di soper.

Referi[redaktar | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 (1988) - The Romance Languages - . (London) Routledge.
  2. Citala eroro: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named price
  3. (1984) - An introduction to Old French - . (New York) Modern Language Association of America.
  4. Accademia della Crusca On the use of the passato remoto (in Italian)
  5. Accademia della Crusca On the use of the passato remoto (in Italian)
  6. 6.0 6.1 pronounce: nàrada
  7. pronounce: à nnaràdu
  8. pronounce: naraìada
  9. pronounce: nàra
  10. Ethnologue, Languages of the World, 15.ta ediciono, SIL International, 2005.

Bibliografio[redaktar | edit source]

  • Holtus, Günter/Metzeltin, Michael/Schmitt, Christian: Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL). Niemeyer, Tübingen 1988-2005 (12 tomos).
  • Lindenbauer, Petrea/Metzeltin, Michael/Thir, Margit: Die romanischen Sprachen. Eine einführende Übersicht. G. Egert, Wilhelmsfeld 1995.
  • Metzeltin, Michael: Las lenguas románicas estándar. Historia de su formación y de su uso. Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, Uviéu 2004.

Historio e general aspekti[redaktar | edit source]

  • M. Banniard, Du latin aux langues romanes, 1997, Nathan ;
  • Jean-Marie Klinkenberg, Des langues romanes, éditions Duculot, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1994 (2Shablono:E édition) ;
  • Michael Metzeltin, Las lenguas románicas estándar. Historia de su formación y de su uso. Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, Uviéu 2004.
  • Wilfried Stroh, Le latin est mort, vive le latin ! Petite histoire d'une grande langue, traduit de l'allemand, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 2008, 302 pages.
  • Paul Teyssier, Comprendre les langues romanes, du français à l'espagnol, au portugais, à l'italien & au roumain, méthode d'intercompréhension, Paris, Chandeigne, 2004 ;

Monografii, universitatala manuali[redaktar | edit source]

  • Pierre Bec, Manuel pratique de philologie romane, Paris, 1970-1971, deux tomes ;
  • Édouard Bourciez, Éléments de linguistique romane, Paris, 1967 pour la 5Shablono:E édition ;
  • Yves Cortez, Le français ne vient pas du latin, Paris, 2007, Éditions L'harmattan.
  • M.-D. Glessgen, Domaines et Méthodes de la linguistique romane, Zürich, 2004-2005, RoSe, 2 vol. ;
  • Günter Holtus/Michael Metzeltin/Christian Schmitt: Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL). Niemeyer, Tübingen 1988-2005 (12 volumes).
  • Mireille Huchon, Histoire de la langue française, Paris, 2002 ;
  • Petrea Lindenbauer/Michael Metzeltin/Margit Thir, Die romanischen Sprachen. Eine einführende Übersicht. G. Egert, Wilhelmsfeld 1995.
  • Max Niedermann, Phonétique historique du latin, Paris, 1953 pour la 3Shablono:E édition ;

Extera ligili[redaktar | edit source]