Historio di Kanada

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Linguala regioni di Nordal Amerika ante l'arivo dil Europani.

Arkeologiala e genetikala studii indikas ke homi habitis Kanada, an nuna la teritorio Yukon cirkume 26 500 yari ante nun, e sude de Ontario cirkume 9 500 yari ante nun[1]. On kalkulas ke existis 200 mil til 2 milioni indijeni en Kanada dum la 15ma yarcento.

En L'Anse aux Meadows existis Vikinga kolonio c. la yaro 1000.

L'unesma Europani qui arivis en la nuna Kanada esis vikingi. Li establisis su en la regiono Newfoundland dum la yari 1000a[2] e, pos ke lia koloniigo faliis, li ne pluse probesis koloniigar la regiono. Erste en 1497, Italian explorero Giovanni Caboto exploris la litoro por Anglia.

En 1534, Jacques Cartier exploris Kanadana litoro en Atlantiko. Samuel de Champlain arivis en 1603 e fondis Quebec en 1608. En 1610 Britaniani fondis lua unesma kolonii en la regiono, en Cupids e Ferryland[3]. La Dek e tri kolonii fondesis poka yari pose. Nova Skotia divenis Britaniana teritorio en 1713 per la kontrato di Utrecht.

La morto di Benjamin West dum la batalio di Abraham-planaji.

En 1759, Britaniani vinkis Franci en la batalio di Abraham-planaji. Pos la Sep-yara milito Francia cedis granda parto di Kanada ad Unionita Rejio. Rejala proklamo en 1763 kreis la provinco Quebec, ed unionis l'insulo di Cape Breton a Nova-Skotia. Por preventar konflikti en Quebec, Britania aprobis l'Akto pri Quebec en 1774, qua expansis la teritorio di la provinco a la Granda Lagi e la valo dil fluvio Ohio. Franca linguo riestablisesis ibe. Ta agado iracigis la kolonigiisti di la Dek e tri kolonii ed stimulis anti-Britaniana sentimenti poka yari ante l'Usana revoluciono.

Per tale nomizita Paco di Paris signatita en 1783, la nedependo di la dek e tri kolonii agnoskesis, e teritorii sude de la Granda Lagi cedesis ad Usa. Dum la Milito di 1812, Usa atakis Kanada, ma pos du yari patis.

Pos diversa konferi, konstitucala akto en 1867 kreis Kanadana Kunfederuro nedependanta de Unionita Rejio ye la 1ma di julio 1867. Komence Kanada konsistis ek quar provinci: Ontario, Quebec, Nova-Skotia e New Brunswick. Pose Kanada asumis kontrolo di tale nomizita Tero di Rupert, e di Nord-Westala Teritorio. Britaniana Kolumbia ed insulo Vancouver unionesis a la kunfederuro en 1871 kontre ke insulo Prince Edward unionesis erste en 1873. Por stimular l'expanso adweste, Kanadana guvernerio stimulis la konstrukturo di ferovoyo North Canadian Pacific, qua kompleteskis en 1915 e ligis Québec a Britaniana Kolumbia.

Unionita Rejio duris kontrolar Kanadan exeteral aferi. Konseque, kande unesma mondomilito komencis, Kanada eniris la milito. Volontarii sendesis al westala fronto. De cirkume 625 000 soldati sendita, cirkume 60.000 perisis e 173.000 vundesis. En 1939 sub la guvernerio dil chefministro William Lyon Mackenzie King Kanada deklaris milito kontre Germania tri dii pos l'Unionita Rejio. Kanadana trupi esis multe importanta dum l'inkurso di Dieppe en 1942, dum la batalio di Normandia en 1944, ed anke protektis lora rejulo di Nederlando dum Germana okupo en ta lando.

En 1949, Newfoundland (nuna Newfoundland e Labrador) unionesis a Kanada. En 1982, parlamento di Kanada aprobis Canada Act, qua kompletigis la nedependo di Kanada del Unionita Rejio. En 1999, kreesis Nunavut, la triesma teritorio di la lando.

En 2005, Kanada divenis la 4ma lando en la mondo qua igis samasexua mariajo legala. Depos 2003, multa lokala korti ja agnoskabis samasexua mariajo. Ank en 2003, du partisi, Canadian Alliance e Progressive Conservative unionis por formacar la Partiso Konservema (Angle: Conservative Party), fininta 13-yara divido di konservema voti. Ca nova partiso suportis l'elekto di Stephen Harper kom chefministro en 2006. En 2011 le Konservema obtenis la majoritato di la voti, ma en 2015 li perdis l'elekto por Liberala partiso (Angle Liberal Party), qua havis Justin Trudeau kom chefo.

Referi[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

Bibliografio[redaktar | redaktar fonto]

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